3 Explain How Theories of Development and Frameworks to Essay example
3057 WordsJan 2nd, 201313 Pages
3 EXPLAIN HOW THEORIES OF DEVELOPMENT AND FRAMEWORKS TO SUPPORT DEVELOPMENT INFLUENCE CURRENT PRACTICE.
Theories of development offer insights into the forces guiding childhood growth and what can affect them.
Each offers insight but each has limitations, which is why developmental scientists use more than one theory to guide their thinking about the growth of children.
Current practice is based on many years of knowledge and experience. This helps us to understand children learning, development and behavior.
Research is ongoing and new information becomes available all the time. This means it is important that we keep our knowledge up to date and use new ideas in practice.
Research into child development is an ongoing process.…show more content…
5. Discrimination Learning: The ability to make different responses to similar-appearing stimuli. 6. Concept Learning: A common response to a class of stimuli. 7. Rule Learning. Learning a chain of two or more concepts. 8. Problem Solving. A kind of learning that requires "thinking."
Jean Piaget (1896 – 1980)
Main theory – development takes place in distinctive stages of cognitive development. Adults influence but the child is building their own thinking systems.
Piaget is known for his research in developmental psychology. He was involved in the administration of intelligence tests to children and became interested in the types of mistakes children at various ages were likely to make. He began to study the reasoning processes of children at various stages.
He theorized that cognitive development proceeds in four genetically determined stages that always follow the same sequential order. Piaget used the term Schema to define this.
A Schema describes both the mental and physical actions involved in understanding and knowing.
In Piagets view, a schema includes both a category of knowledge and the process of obtaining the knowledge. As experiences happen, this new information is used to modify, add to or change previously existing schemas.
An example of this is a child may have a schema about a type of animal, such as a dog. If the child’s sole experience has been with small dogs they may
The theoretical framework may be rooted in a specific theory, in which case, your work is expected to test the validity of that existing theory in relation to specific events, issues, or phenomena. Many social science research papers fit into this rubric. For example, Peripheral Realism Theory, which categorizes perceived differences among nation-states as those that give orders, those that obey, and those that rebel, could be used as a means for understanding conflicted relationships among countries in Africa. A test of this theory could be the following: Does Peripheral Realism Theory help explain intra-state actions, such as, the disputed split between southern and northern Sudan that led to the creation of two nations?
However, you may not always be asked by your professor to test a specific theory in your paper, but to develop your own framework from which your analysis of the research problem is derived. Based upon the above example, it is perhaps easiest to understand the nature and function of a theoretical framework if it is viewed as an answer to two basic questions:
- What is the research problem/question? [e.g., "How should the individual and the state relate during periods of conflict?"]
- Why is your approach a feasible solution? [i.e., justify the application of your choice of a particular theory and explain why alternative constructs were rejected. I could choose instead to test Instrumentalist or Circumstantialists models developed among ethnic conflict theorists that rely upon socio-economic-political factors to explain individual-state relations and to apply this theoretical model to periods of war between nations].
The answers to these questions come from a thorough review of the literature and your course readings [summarized and analyzed in the next section of your paper] and the gaps in the research that emerge from the review process. With this in mind, a complete theoretical framework will likely not emerge until after you have completed a thorough review of the literature.
Just as a research problem in your paper requires contextualization and background information, a theory requires a framework for understanding its application to the topic being investigated. When writing and revising this part of your research paper, keep in mind the following:
- Clearly describe the framework, concepts, models, or specific theories that underpin your study. This includes noting who the key theorists are in the field who have conducted research on the problem you are investigating and, when necessary, the historical context that supports the formulation of that theory. This latter element is particularly important if the theory is relatively unknown or it is borrowed from another discipline.
- Position your theoretical framework within a broader context of related frameworks, concepts, models, or theories. As noted in the example above, there will likely be several concepts, theories, or models that can be used to help develop a framework for understanding the research problem. Therefore, note why the theory you've chosen is the appropriate one.
- The present tense is used when writing about theory. Although the past tense can be used to describe the history of a theory or the role of key theorists, the construction of your theoretical framework is happening now.
- You should make your theoretical assumptions as explicit as possible. Later, your discussion of methodology should be linked back to this theoretical framework.
- Don’t just take what the theory says as a given! Reality is never accurately represented in such a simplistic way; if you imply that it can be, you fundamentally distort a reader's ability to understand the findings that emerge. Given this, always note the limitations of the theoretical framework you've chosen [i.e., what parts of the research problem require further investigation because the theory inadequately explains a certain phenomena].
The Conceptual Framework. College of Education. Alabama State University; Conceptual Framework: What Do You Think is Going On? College of Engineering. University of Michigan; Drafting an Argument. Writing@CSU. Colorado State University; Lynham, Susan A. “The General Method of Theory-Building Research in Applied Disciplines.” Advances in Developing Human Resources 4 (August 2002): 221-241; Tavallaei, Mehdi and Mansor Abu Talib. "A General Perspective on the Role of Theory in Qualitative Research." Journal of International Social Research 3 (Spring 2010); Ravitch, Sharon M. and Matthew Riggan. Reason and Rigor: How Conceptual Frameworks Guide Research. Second edition. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE, 2017; Reyes, Victoria. Demystifying the Journal Article. Inside Higher Education; Trochim, William M.K. Philosophy of Research. Research Methods Knowledge Base. 2006; Weick, Karl E. “The Work of Theorizing.” In Theorizing in Social Science: The Context of Discovery. Richard Swedberg, editor. (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2014), pp. 177-194.