Pierre De Fermat Bibliography Page

Pierre de Fermat, (born August 17, 1601, Beaumont-de-Lomagne, France—died January 12, 1665, Castres), French mathematician who is often called the founder of the modern theory of numbers. Together with René Descartes, Fermat was one of the two leading mathematicians of the first half of the 17th century. Independently of Descartes, Fermat discovered the fundamental principle of analytic geometry. His methods for finding tangents to curves and their maximum and minimum points led him to be regarded as the inventor of the differential calculus. Through his correspondence with Blaise Pascal he was a co-founder of the theory of probability.

Life and early work

Little is known of Fermat’s early life and education. He was of Basque origin and received his primary education in a local Franciscan school. He studied law, probably at Toulouse and perhaps also at Bordeaux. Having developed tastes for foreign languages, classical literature, and ancient science and mathematics, Fermat followed the custom of his day in composing conjectural “restorations” of lost works of antiquity. By 1629 he had begun a reconstruction of the long-lost Plane Loci of Apollonius, the Greek geometer of the 3rd century bce. He soon found that the study of loci, or sets of points with certain characteristics, could be facilitated by the application of algebra to geometry through a coordinate system. Meanwhile, Descartes had observed the same basic principle of analytic geometry, that equations in two variable quantities define plane curves. Because Fermat’s Introduction to Loci was published posthumously in 1679, the exploitation of their discovery, initiated in Descartes’s Géométrie of 1637, has since been known as Cartesian geometry.

In 1631 Fermat received the baccalaureate in law from the University of Orléans. He served in the local parliament at Toulouse, becoming councillor in 1634. Sometime before 1638 he became known as Pierre de Fermat, though the authority for this designation is uncertain. In 1638 he was named to the Criminal Court.

Analyses of curves

Fermat’s study of curves and equations prompted him to generalize the equation for the ordinary parabolaay = x2, and that for the rectangular hyperbolaxy = a2, to the form an - 1y = xn. The curves determined by this equation are known as the parabolas or hyperbolas of Fermat according as n is positive or negative. He similarly generalized the Archimedean spiralr = aθ. These curves in turn directed him in the middle 1630s to an algorithm, or rule of mathematical procedure, that was equivalent to differentiation. This procedure enabled him to find equations of tangents to curves and to locate maximum, minimum, and inflection points of polynomial curves, which are graphs of linear combinations of powers of the independent variable. During the same years, he found formulas for areas bounded by these curves through a summation process that is equivalent to the formula now used for the same purpose in the integral calculus. Such a formula is:

It is not known whether or not Fermat noticed that differentiation of xn, leading to nan - 1, is the inverse of integratingxn. Through ingenious transformations he handled problems involving more general algebraic curves, and he applied his analysis of infinitesimal quantities to a variety of other problems, including the calculation of centres of gravity and finding the lengths of curves. Descartes in the Géométrie had reiterated the widely held view, stemming from Aristotle, that the precise rectification or determination of the length of algebraic curves was impossible; but Fermat was one of several mathematicians who, in the years 1657–59, disproved the dogma. In a paper entitled “De Linearum Curvarum cum Lineis Rectis Comparatione” (“Concerning the Comparison of Curved Lines with Straight Lines”), he showed that the semicubical parabola and certain other algebraic curves were strictly rectifiable. He also solved the related problem of finding the surface area of a segment of a paraboloid of revolution. This paper appeared in a supplement to the Veterum Geometria Promota, issued by the mathematician Antoine de La Loubère in 1660. It was Fermat’s only mathematical work published in his lifetime.

Disagreement with other Cartesian views

Fermat differed also with Cartesian views concerning the law of refraction (the sines of the angles of incidence and refraction of light passing through media of different densities are in a constant ratio), published by Descartes in 1637 in La Dioptrique; like La Géométrie, it was an appendix to his celebrated Discours de la méthode. Descartes had sought to justify the sine law through a premise that light travels more rapidly in the denser of the two media involved in the refraction. Twenty years later Fermat noted that this appeared to be in conflict with the view espoused by Aristotelians that nature always chooses the shortest path. Applying his method of maxima and minima and making the assumption that light travels less rapidly in the denser medium, Fermat showed that the law of refraction is consonant with his “principle of least time.” His argument concerning the speed of light was found later to be in agreement with the wave theory of the 17th-century Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens, and in 1849 it was verified experimentally by A.-H.-L. Fizeau.

Through the mathematician and theologian Marin Mersenne, who, as a friend of Descartes, often acted as an intermediary with other scholars, Fermat in 1638 maintained a controversy with Descartes on the validity of their respective methods for tangents to curves. Fermat’s views were fully justified some 30 years later in the calculus of Sir Isaac Newton. Recognition of the significance of Fermat’s work in analysis was tardy, in part because he adhered to the system of mathematical symbols devised by François Viète, notations that Descartes’s Géométrie had rendered largely obsolete. The handicap imposed by the awkward notations operated less severely in Fermat’s favourite field of study, the theory of numbers; but here, unfortunately, he found no correspondent to share his enthusiasm. In 1654 he had enjoyed an exchange of letters with his fellow mathematician Blaise Pascal on problems in probability concerning games of chance, the results of which were extended and published by Huygens in his De Ratiociniis in Ludo Aleae (1657).

Work on theory of numbers

Fermat vainly sought to persuade Pascal to join him in research in number theory. Inspired by an edition in 1621 of the Arithmetic of Diophantus, the Greek mathematician of the 3rd century ad, Fermat had discovered new results in the so-called higher arithmetic, many of which concerned properties of prime numbers (those positive integers that have no factors other than 1 and themselves). One of the most elegant of these had been the theorem that every prime of the form 4n + 1 is uniquely expressible as the sum of two squares. A more important result, now known as Fermat’s lesser theorem, asserts that if p is a prime number and if a is any positive integer, then ap - a is divisible by p. Fermat seldom gave demonstrations of his results, and in this case proofs were provided by Gottfried Leibniz, the 17th-century German mathematician and philosopher, and Leonhard Euler, the 18th-century Swiss mathematician. For occasional demonstrations of his theorems Fermat used a device that he called his method of “infinite descent,” an inverted form of reasoning by recurrence or mathematical induction. One unproved conjecture by Fermat turned out to be false. In 1640, in letters to mathematicians and to other knowledgeable thinkers of the day, including Blaise Pascal, he announced his belief that numbers of the form 22n + 1, known since as “numbers of Fermat,” are necessarily prime; but a century later Euler showed that 225 + 1 has 641 as a factor. It is not known if there are any primes among the Fermat numbers for n > 5. Carl Friedrich Gauss in 1796 in Germany found an unexpected application for Fermat numbers when he showed that a regular polygon of N sides is constructible in a Euclidean sense if N is a prime Fermat number or a product of distinct Fermat primes. By far the best known of Fermat’s many theorems is a problem known as his “great,” or “last,” theorem. This appeared in the margin of his copy of Diophantus’ Arithmetica and states that the equation xn + yn = zn, where x, y, z, and n are positive integers, has no solution if n is greater than 2. This theorem remained unsolved until the late 20th century.

Fermat was the most productive mathematician of his day. But his influence was circumscribed by his reluctance to publish.

Carl B. Boyer

Early Life

Pierre De Fermat was a French mathematician born on 17th August 1601 in Beaumont-de-Lomagne, France to a wealthy merchant family. His early schooling was from the local Franciscan monastery. He took his higher education from the University of Toulouse. Fermat was a Lawyer by profession but is credited most for his accomplishments in the field of mathematics.

Mathematical Work

He is particularly known for his developments in infinitesimal calculus and for discovering the method for finding the greatest and smallest ordinates of curved lines. He also did a considerable amount of research of the number theory. His contributions to analytical geometry, optics and probability are noteworthy.

After Fermat moved to Bordeaux in the 1620s, he began his research work in various mathematical topics. His collaboration with the leading mathematicians there produced some important works such as his work on maxima and minima. After Bordeaux were his travel to Orleans where he studied law and gained a civil law degree in 1631. He got the title of ‘councillor’ at the High Court of Judicature in Toulouse.

His mathematical work continued along with his job as councilor. He often wrote letters to his friends which consisted of many theorems however many of these did not include any proof to them. This is what gave him the title of ‘amateur mathematician’ although he still got the desired recognition which led to dispute with some of the contemporary mathematicians like Descartes and Wallis.

His work in analytical geometry was inspired from a famous problem of Apollonius. Fermat provided a proof to this problem using analytical methods. He also found a way of calculating the length of a curve. His ‘maxima and minima’ method was also a very significant discovery which was first published in 1638, used later to find the center of gravity.

Fermat’s work in optics was an advance to the theory of light by Heron of Alexandria. He made some corrections to the theory such as his demonstration of refracted light that should be measured by optical distance which is always a minimum. He also gave the correct fact that light passes more slowly in a dense medium. It was this work by Fermat that influenced the famous mathematician Johann Bernoulli to forming the calculus of variations.

His work in the foundation of a theory of probability is incomparable to the work done by any other mathematician of that time and even after that as a matter of fact. Fermat claimed to prove all his theorems however, except for Fermat’s famous Last Theorem, none of the other proven theorems have been found.

Fermat was one of the most prominent mathematicians of the first half of the seventeenth century and would have been more acclaimed if more was known about his personal life. Many top mathematicians claim to have been influenced by Fermat’s work including Isaac Newton and Andrew Wiles.


Pierre De Fermat died on 12th January 1665 in Castres, Tarn. A highly prestigious school in Toulouse is named after him as ‘Lycee Pierre De Fermat’. There is also a statue of him at the Capitole of Toulouse made by the French sculptor Theophile Barrau.

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